Body Composition

Long-Term Effects of a Novel Continuous Remote Care Intervention Including Nutritional Ketosis for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-year Non-randomized Clinical Trial

Shaminie J. Athinarayanan, Rebecca N. Adams, Sarah J. Hallberg, Amy L. McKenzie, Nasir H. Bhanpuri, Wayne W. Campbell, Jeff S. Volek, Stephen D. Phinney, James P. McCarter

An open label, non-randomized, controlled study with 262 and 87 participants with T2D were enrolled in the CCI and usual care (UC) groups, respectively.  Studies on long-term sustainability of low-carbohydrate approaches to treat diabetes are limited. The aim was to assess the effects of a continuous care intervention (CCI) on retention, glycemic control, weight, body composition, cardiovascular, liver, kidney, thyroid, inflammatory markers, diabetes medication usage and disease outcomes at 2 years in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

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Effect of 6-month Adherence to a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Program

Eric C Westman, MD, MHS; William S Yancy, MD; Joel S Edman, DSc; Keith F Tomlin; Christine E Perkins, MSW

Single arm prospective with 51 participants:  In these subjects, the mean body weight decreased 10.3% +/- 5.9% from baseline to 6 months. The mean percentage of body weight that was fat decreased 2.9% +/- 3.2% from baseline to 6 months. Serum total cholesterol level decreased 11 +/- 26 mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level decreased 10 +/- 25 mg/dL, triglyceride level decreased 56 +/- 45 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level increased 10 +/- 8 mg/dL, and the cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio decreased 0.9 +/- 0.6 units. A very low carbohydrate diet program led to sustained weight loss during a 6-month period.

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Body Composition and Hormonal Responses to a Carbohydrate-restricted Diet

Jeff S. Volek; Matthew J. Sharman; Dawn M. Love; Neva G. Avery; Ana L. G[oacute]mez; Timothy P. Scheett; William J. Kraemer

Single arm propective with 12 participants:  Authors conclude that a carbohydrate-restricted diet resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and a concomitant increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men, which may be partially mediated by the reduction in circulating insulin concentrations.

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A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women

Bonnie J. Brehm; Randy J. Seeley; Stephen R. Daniels; David A. D’Alessio

RCT with 53 participants:  Based on these data, a very low carbohydrate diet is more effective than a low fat diet for short-term weight loss and, over 6 months, is not associated with deleterious effects on important cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.

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Effect of Low- Carbohydrate, Unlimited Calorie Diet on the Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Prospective Controlled Study

James R. BailesJr.; Misty T. Strow; Joseph Werthammer; Richard A. McGinnis; Yoram Elitsur

Non-ramdomized Prospective Controlled Study:  Obese children following a high protein, low CHO diet (<30g/day) lost an average of 5.21 ± 3.44 kg and decreased their BMI by 2.42 ± 1.3 points, compared to the children in the Low Cal Diet (calorie restricted) who gained an average of 2.36 ± 2.54 kg and 1.00 point on the BMI value.  A high protein, low carbohydrate, unlimited calorie diet was superior to a restricted calorie protocol for weight loss in obese school age children; moreover, compliance was better.

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A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

William S. Yancy Jr., MD, MHS; Maren K. Olsen, PhD; John R. Guyton, MD; Ronna P. Bakst, RD; Eric C. Westman, MD, MHS

RCT with 120 participants:  Compared with a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet program had better participant retention and greater weight loss. During active weight loss, serum triglyceride levels decreased more and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased more with the low-carbohydrate diet than with the low-fat diet.

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Comparison of Energyrestricted Very Lowcarbohydrate and Low-fat Diets on Weight Loss and Body Composition in Overweight Men and Women

JS Volek; MJ Sharman; AL Gómez; DA Judelson; MR Rubin; G Watson; B Sokmen; R Silvestre; DN French; WJ Kraemer

RCT with 28 particpants:  This study shows a clear benefit of a VLCK over LF diet for short-term body weight and fat loss, especially in men. A preferential loss of fat in the trunk region with a VLCK diet is novel and potentially clinically significant but requires further validation.

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Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 months

Grant D Brinkworth; Manny Noakes; Jonathan D Buckley; Jennifer B Keogh; Peter M Clifton

RCT with 69 participants:  Low Carb group (over a isocaloric low fat diet) had greater decreases in triglycerides, increases in HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, and a greater but nonsignificant increase in apolipoprotein B. Both dietary patterns resulted in similar weight loss and changes in body composition. The LC diet may offer clinical benefits to obese persons with insulin resistance.

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Long Term Successful Weight Loss with a Combination Biphasic Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet and Mediterranean Diet Maintenance Protocol

Antonio Paoli, Antonino Bianco, Keith A Grimaldi, Alessandra Lodi, Gerardo Bosco

Single arm perspective with 89 participants:  The data from this study demonstrate that the majority of subjects showed significant weight loss (10%) as a result of a two-phase VLCKD and were compliant both during the six month weight loss phase and the six month normocaloric maintenance phase, with no weight regain. We can suggest that the proposed protocol was generally successful because of (a) the protein mass protective effects of a VLCKD and (b) the prescription of a traditional Mediterranean diet in the post weight-loss phase was especially important for achieving “weight loss success”, i.e., continued weight loss for at least one year.

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