Inflammation

β-Hydroxybutyrate Deactivates Neutrophil NLRP3 Inflammasome to Relieve Gout Flares

Emily L. Goldberg; Jennifer L. Asher; Ryan D. Molony; Albert C. Shaw; Caroline J. Zeiss; Chao Wang; Ludmilla A. Morozova-Roche; Raimund I. Herzog; Akiko Iwasaki; Vishwa Deep Dixit

Rat study:  Aging and lipotoxicity are two major risk factors for gout that are linked by the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Neutrophil-mediated production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) drives gouty flares that cause joint destruction, intense pain, and fever…… Collectively, our studies show that BHB, a known alternate metabolic fuel, is also an anti-inflammatory molecule that may serve as a treatment for gout.

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An Isoenergetic Very Low Carbohydrate Diet Improves Serum HDL Cholesterol and Triacylglycerol Concentrations, the Total Cholesterol to HDL Cholesterol Ratio and Postprandial Pipemic Responses Compared With a Low Fat Diet in Normal Weight, Normolipidemic Women

Jeff S. Volek; Matthew J. Sharman; Ana L. Gómez; Timothy P. Scheett; William J. Kraemer

Ramdomized crossover with 10 participants:  In normal weight, normolipidemic women, a short-term very low carbohydrate diet modestly increased LDL-C, yet there were favorable effects on cardiovascular disease risk status by virtue of a relatively larger increase in HDL-C and a decrease in fasting and postprandial triaclyglycerols.

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A randomized study comparing the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet and a conventional diet on lipoprotein subfractions and C-reactive protein levels in patients with severe obesity

Prakash Seshadri, MD; Nayyar Iqbal, MD; Linda Stern, MD; Monica Williams; Kathryn L. Chicano, CRNP; Denise A. Daily, RD; Joyce McGrory, CRNP; Edward J. Gracely, PhD; Daniel J. Rader, MD; Frederick F. Samaha, MD

RCT with 78 participants:  In this 6-month study involving severely obese subjects, we found an overall favorable effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on lipoprotein subfractions, and on inflammation in high-risk subjects. Both diets had similar effects on LDL and HDL subfractions.

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Diet-Induced Weight Loss Is Associated with Decreases in Plasma Serum Amyloid A and CReactive Protein Independent of Dietary Macronutrient Composition in Obese Subjects

Kevin D. O’Brien; Bonnie J. Brehm; Randy J. Seeley; Judy Bean; Mark H. Wener; Stephen Daniels; David A. D’Alessio

RCT with 41 participants:  The very low-carbohydrate dieters had a significantly greater decrease in LogSAA, but their weight loss also was significantly greater. In this study, the decreases in inflammatory markers correlated significantly with weight loss. Also, change in LogSAA correlated with change in insulin resistance. Thus, in otherwise healthy, obese women, weight loss was associated with significant decreases in both SAA and CRP. These effects were proportional to the amount of weight lost but independent of dietary macronutrient composition.

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Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects

Megan R. Ruth, Ava M. Port, Mitali Shah, Ashley C. Bourland, Nawfal W. Istfan, Kerrie P. Nelson, Noyan Gokce, Caroline M. Apovian

RCT with 55 participants:  Relative to the Low Fat/High Carb group, the High Fat/Low Carb group had greater improvements in blood lipids and systemic inflammation with similar changes in body weight and composition. This small-scale study suggests that HFLC diets may be more beneficial to cardiovascular health and inflammation in free-living obese adults compared to LFHC diets.

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Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, microvascular function, and cellular adhesion markers in individuals taking statins

Kevin D. Ballarda, Erin E. Quanna, Brian R. Kupchaka, Brittanie M. Volka, Diana M. Kawieckia, Maria Luz Fernandez, Richard L. Seip, Carl M. Maresha, William J. Kraemera, Jeff S.Volek

Single arm perspective with 21 participants.  The results of this study suggest that a CRD could be a sustainable lifestyle that complements statin treatment to improve overall cardio-metabolic risk, particularly for individuals with other risk factors indicative of metabolic syndrome, but future research is needed to determine the effects over a longer period of time.

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