Insulin Resistance/Sensitivity

Comparison of a Very Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet on Fasting Lipids, LDL Subclasses, Insulin Resistance, and Postprandial Lipemic Responses in Overweight Women

Jeff S. Volek , PhD, RD, FACN; Matthew J. Sharman , MA; Ana L. Gómez , MS; Chris DiPasquale , MS; Melissa Roti , PhD; Amy Pumerantz , BS; William J. Kraemer , PhD

Ramdomized crossover with 13 participants:  Compared to a low-fat weight loss diet, a short-term very low-carbohydrate diet did not lower LDL-C but did prevent the decline in HDL-C and resulted in improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese, but otherwise healthy women. Small decreases in body mass improved postprandial lipemia, and therefore cardiovascular risk, independent of diet composition.

Read paper

Effect of a Low- Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Guenther Boden, MD; Karin Sargrad, MS, RD, CDE; Carol Homko, PhD, RN, CDE; Maria Mozzoli, BS; T. Peter Stein, PhD

Single arm – meabolic ward with 10 participants:  In a small group of obese patients with type 2 diabetes, a low-carbohydrate diet followed for 2 weeks resulted in spontaneous reduction in energy intake to a level appropriate to their height; weight loss that was completely accounted for by reduced caloric intake; much improved 24-hour blood glucose profiles, insulin sensitivity, and hemoglobin A1c; and decreased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

Read paper

Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 months

Grant D Brinkworth; Manny Noakes; Jonathan D Buckley; Jennifer B Keogh; Peter M Clifton

RCT with 69 participants:  Low Carb group (over a isocaloric low fat diet) had greater decreases in triglycerides, increases in HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol, and a greater but nonsignificant increase in apolipoprotein B. Both dietary patterns resulted in similar weight loss and changes in body composition. The LC diet may offer clinical benefits to obese persons with insulin resistance.

Read paper

Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, microvascular function, and cellular adhesion markers in individuals taking statins

Kevin D. Ballarda, Erin E. Quanna, Brian R. Kupchaka, Brittanie M. Volka, Diana M. Kawieckia, Maria Luz Fernandez, Richard L. Seip, Carl M. Maresha, William J. Kraemera, Jeff S.Volek

Single arm perspective with 21 participants.  The results of this study suggest that a CRD could be a sustainable lifestyle that complements statin treatment to improve overall cardio-metabolic risk, particularly for individuals with other risk factors indicative of metabolic syndrome, but future research is needed to determine the effects over a longer period of time.

Read paper

Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance Are Altered by Maintenance on a Ketogenic Diet

Kimberly P. Kinzig, Mary Ann Honors, and Sara L. Hargrave

Low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets (KD) are frequently implemented in efforts to reduce or maintain body weight, although the metabolic effects of long-term exposure to this type of diet remain controversial. This study assessed the responsiveness to peripheral and central insulin, glucose tolerance, and meal-induced effects of consuming a KD in the rat.

Read paper

Sponsors & Supporters

×