Kevin D. Ballarda, Erin E. Quanna, Brian R. Kupchaka, Brittanie M. Volka, Diana M. Kawieckia, Maria Luz Fernandez, Richard L. Seip, Carl M. Maresha, William J. Kraemera, Jeff S.Volek
Single arm perspective with 21 participants. The results of this study suggest that a CRD could be a sustainable lifestyle that complements statin treatment to improve overall cardio-metabolic risk, particularly for individuals with other risk factors indicative of metabolic syndrome, but future research is needed to determine the effects over a longer period of time.
Olubukola Ajala, Patrick English, Jonathan Pinkney
Low-carbohydrate are as effective as low-GI, Mediterranean, and high protein diets in improving various markers of cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes and should be considered in the overall strategy of diabetes management.
Yoshifumi Yamada, Junichi Uchida, Hisa Izumi, Yoko Tsukamoto, Gaku Inoue, Yuichi Watanabe, Junichiro Irie, Satoru Yamada
RCT with 24 participants. Findings suggest that a low-carbohydrate diet is effective in lowering the HbA1c and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are unable to adhere to a calorie restricted diet.
Jeannie Tay, Natalie D. Luscombe-Marsh, Campbell H. Thompson, Manny Noakes, Jon D. Buckley, Gary A. Wittert, William S. Yancy Jr., Grant D. Brinkworth
RCT with 93 participants. Both diets achieved substantial improvements for several clinical glycemic control and CVD risk markers. These improvements and reductions in GV and anti-glycemic medication requirements were greatest with the LC compared with HC. This suggests an LC diet with low saturated fat may be an effective dietary approach for T2DM management if effects are sustained beyond 24 weeks. (It should be noted that a Low-Carb/ High[er]-Saturated-Fat diet was not included in the trial).
Laura R. Saslow, Sarah Kim, Jennifer J. Daubenmier, Judith T. Moskowitz, Stephen D. Phinney, Veronica Goldman, Elizabeth J. Murphy, Rachel M. Cox, Patricia Moran, Fredrick M. Hecht
RCT with 34 participants. Results suggest that a very low carbohydrate diet coupled with skills to promote behavior change may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes while allowing decreases in diabetes medications.
Basilio Moreno; Diego Bellido; Ignacio Sajoux; Albert Goday; Dolores Saavedra; Ana B. Crujeiras; Felipe F. Casanueva
RCT with 53 Particpants. In a group of obese patients, the VLCK diet was significantly more effective than a standard LC diet. At one year followup in the group with VLCK diet, most of the patients loss more than 10 % of their initial weight and lean mass was well preserved.
Satoshi Maekawa, Tetsuya Kawahara, Ryosuke Nomura, Takayuki Murase, Yasuyoshi Ann, Masayuki Oeholm, Masaru Harada
2 Arm Retrospective with 72 participants: The LCD is effective for normalizing blood glucose and preventing progression to type-2 diabetes in patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.
Lena Jonasson, Hans Guldbrand, Anna K. Lundberg, Fredrik H. Nystrom
RCT with 61 Participants. Low Carbohydrate Diet was found significantly to improve the sub-clinical inflammatory state in type 2 diabetes.
Lydia A. Bazzano, MD, PhD, MPH; Tian Hu, MD, MS; Kristi Reynolds, PhD; Lu Yao, MD, MS; Calynn Bunol, MS, RD, LDN; Yanxi Liu, MS; Chung-Shiuan Chen, MS; Michael J. Klag, MD, MPH; Paul K. Whelton, MD, MSc, MB; Jiang He, MD, PhD
RCT with 148 participants. The low-carbohydrate diet was more effective for weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor reduction than the low-fat diet. Restricting carbohydrate may be an option for persons seeking to lose weight and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.
Tanja K Thorning, Farinaz Raziani, Nathalie T Bendsen, Arne Astrup, Tine Tholstrup, Anne Raben
Randomized crossover with 14 participants. Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion.
Christopher D. Gardner, Lisa C. Offringa, Jennifer C. Hartle, Kris Kapphahn, Rise Cherin
RCT with 61 Participants. Both diets demonstrated significant weight loss, as well as improved biomarkers for many disease risk factors.
Jonathan Sackner-Bernstein, David Kanter, Sanjay Kaul
This trial-level meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing LoCHO diets with LoFAT diets in strictly adherent populations demonstrates that each diet was associated with significant weight loss and reduction in predicted risk of ASCVD events. However, LoCHO diet was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in weight loss and predicted ASCVD risk in studies from 8 weeks to 24 months in duration. These results suggest that future evaluations of dietary guidelines should consider low carbohydrate diets as effective and safe intervention for weight management in the overweight and obese, although long-term effects require further investigation.
Thomas P. Wycherley, Campbell H. Thompson, Jonathan D. Buckley, Natalie D. Luscombe-Marsh, Manny Noakes, Gary A. Wittert, Grant D. Brinkworth
RCT. In patients with obesity and T2DM, HighCHO diet and LowCHO diet have similar effects on endothelial function.
Kevin D Hall, Kong Y Chen, Juen Guo , Yan Y Lam, Rudolph L Leibel, Laurel ES Mayer, Marc L Reitman, Michael Rosenbaum, Steven R Smith, B Timothy Walsh, Eric Ravussin
Metabolic ward crossover with 17 subjects. A logical consequence of the carbohydrate–insulin model is that decreasing the proportion of dietary carbohydrate to fat without altering protein or calories will reduce insulin secretion, increase fat mobilization from adipose tissue, and elevate the oxidation of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). For those participants following the Ketogenic Diet, insulin response was superior to comparative diet.
Alain J. Nordmann, MD, MSc; Abigail Nordmann, BS; Matthias Briel, MD; Ulrich Keller, MD; William S. Yancy Jr, MD, MSH; Bonnie J. Brehm, PhD; Heiner C. Bucher, MD, MPH
Five trials including a total of 447 individuals. This meta-analysis demonstrates that low-carbohydrate, non–energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as effective as low-fat, energy-restricted diets in inducing weight loss for up to 1 year. However, potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values when low-carbohydrate diets to induce weight loss are considered.
Gal Tsaban, Arik Wolak, Hila Avni-Hassid, Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Yaakov Henkin, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Lilac Tene, Hila Zelicha, Anat Yaskolka-Meir, Oded Komy, Avital Bilitzky, Yoash Chassidim, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher , Joachim Thiery, Dror Dicker, Assaf Rudich , Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
RCT with 80 participants. Moderate but persistent dietary-induced weight loss substantially decreased both IPF and EPF volumes. Reduction of pericardial adipose tissues is independently associated with an improved lipid profile. The Mediterranean diet, rich in unsaturated fats and restricted carbohydrates, is superior to an LF diet in terms of the IPF burden reduction.
Taus M , Fumelli D , Busni D , Borroni F , Sebastianelli S , Nicolai G , Nicolai A
Non-randomized 2 arm prospective with 20 participants. KD can improve the weight loss and quality of life in patients who underwent LAGB and failed at losing more weight allowing a weight loss comparable to that obtained with a further calibration and it is useful to to avoid drastic calibrations and their collateral effects
Laura R. Saslow, Jennifer J. Daubenmier, Judith T. Moskowitz, Sarah Kim, Elizabeth J. Murphy, Stephen D. Phinney, Robert Ploutz-Snyder, Veronica Goldman, Rachel M. Cox, Ashley E. Mason, Patricia Moran & Frederick M. Hecht
RCT with 34 particpants. The results suggest that adults with prediabetes or noninsulin-dependent type 2 diabetes may be able to improve glycemic control with less medication by following an ad libitum very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet compared to a moderate-carbohydrate, calorie-restricted low-fat diet. Additional research should examine both clinical outcomes and adherence beyond 12 months.
Amy L McKenzie, PhD ; Sarah J Hallberg, DO, MS ; Brent C Creighton, PhD ; Brittanie M Volk, RD, PhD ; Theresa M Link, RD, CDE ; Marcy K Abner, RD ; Roberta M Glon, RN, BSN ; James P McCarter, MD, PhD ; Jeff S Volek, RD, PhD ; Stephen D Phinney, MD, PhD
This study, non-randomized parallel arm prospective with 262 participants, demonstrates an individualized program delivered and supported remotely that incorporates nutritional ketosis can be highly effective in improving glycemic control and weight loss in adults with T2D while significantly decreasing medication use.
Reason SL, Westman EC, Godfrey R, Maguire E
A carbohydrate-restricted diet may provide patients with McArdle disease with a consistent energy substrate for working muscles, thereby reducing the risk of muscle damage and threat of renal failure. Further research on the use of a LCKD in McArdle disease is warranted.
Belinda S. Lennerz, Anna Barton, Richard K. Bernstein, R. David Dikeman, Carrie Diulus, Sarah Hallberg, Erinn T. Rhodes, Cara B. Ebbeling, Eric C. Westman, William S. Yancy Jr, David S. Ludwig
To evaluate glycemic control among children and adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who consume a very low–carbohydrate diet (VLCD).
Maciej Gasior, Michael A. Rogawski, and Adam L. Hartman
The ketogenic diet has been in clinical use for over 80 years, primarily for the symptomatic treatment of epilepsy. A recent clinical study has raised the possibility that exposure to the ketogenic diet may confer long-lasting therapeutic benefits for patients with epilepsy. Moreover, there is evidence from uncontrolled clinical trials and studies in animal models that the ketogenic diet can provide symptomatic and disease-modifying activity in a broad range of neuro-degenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, and may also be protective in traumatic brain injury and stroke.
Nebeling LC, Miraldi F, Shurin SB, Lerner E.
Establish dietary-induced ketosis in pediatric oncology patients to determine if a ketogenic state would decrease glucose availability to certain tumors, thereby potentially impairing tumor metabolism without adversely affecting the patient’s overall nutritional status.
Hussein M Dashti, MD PhD FICS FACS, Thazhumpal C Mathew, MSc PhD FRCPath, Talib Hussein, MB ChB, Sami K Asfar, MB ChB MD FRCSEd FACS, Abdulla Behbahani, MB ChB FRCS FACSI PhD FICS FACS, Mousa A Khoursheed, MB ChB FRCS FICS, Hilal M Al-Sayer, MD PhD FICS FACS, Yousef Y Bo-Abbas, MD FRCPC, and Naji S Al-Zaid, BSc PhD
To determine the effects of a 24-week ketogenic diet (consisting of 30 g carbohydrate, 1 g/kg body weight protein, 20% saturated fat, and 80% polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat) in obese patients.
Kimberly P. Kinzig, Mary Ann Honors, and Sara L. Hargrave
Low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets (KD) are frequently implemented in efforts to reduce or maintain body weight, although the metabolic effects of long-term exposure to this type of diet remain controversial. This study assessed the responsiveness to peripheral and central insulin, glucose tolerance, and meal-induced effects of consuming a KD in the rat.