JS Volek; MJ Sharman; AL Gómez; DA Judelson; MR Rubin; G Watson; B Sokmen; R Silvestre; DN French; WJ Kraemer
RCT with 28 particpants: This study shows a clear benefit of a VLCK over LF diet for short-term body weight and fat loss, especially in men. A preferential loss of fat in the trunk region with a VLCK diet is novel and potentially clinically significant but requires further validation.
Jeff S. Volek , PhD, RD, FACN; Matthew J. Sharman , MA; Ana L. Gómez , MS; Chris DiPasquale , MS; Melissa Roti , PhD; Amy Pumerantz , BS; William J. Kraemer , PhD
Ramdomized crossover with 13 participants: Compared to a low-fat weight loss diet, a short-term very low-carbohydrate diet did not lower LDL-C but did prevent the decline in HDL-C and resulted in improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese, but otherwise healthy women. Small decreases in body mass improved postprandial lipemia, and therefore cardiovascular risk, independent of diet composition.
Matthew J. Sharman; Ana L. Gómez; William J. Kraemer; Jeff S. Volek
Ramdomized crossover: The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a very low-carbohydrate and a low-fat diet on fasting blood lipids and postprandial lipemia in overweight men. In a balanced, randomized, crossover design, overweight men consumed 2 experimental diets for 2 consecutive 6-wk periods. One was a very low-carbohydrate (<10% energy as carbohydrate) diet and the other a low-fat (<30% energy as fat) diet. Both diets had the same effect on serum total cholesterol, serum insulin, and homeostasis model analysisinsulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Neither diet affected serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) or oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations. The very low-carbohydrate diet was more effective at improving characteristics of the metabolic syndrome as shown by a decrease in fasting serum TAG, the TAG/HDL-C ratio, postprandial lipemia, serum glucose, an increase in LDL particle size, and also greater weight loss.
Prakash Seshadri, MD; Nayyar Iqbal, MD; Linda Stern, MD; Monica Williams; Kathryn L. Chicano, CRNP; Denise A. Daily, RD; Joyce McGrory, CRNP; Edward J. Gracely, PhD; Daniel J. Rader, MD; Frederick F. Samaha, MD
RCT with 78 participants: In this 6-month study involving severely obese subjects, we found an overall favorable effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on lipoprotein subfractions, and on inflammation in high-risk subjects. Both diets had similar effects on LDL and HDL subfractions.
Kelly A. Meckling; Caitriona O’Sullivan; Dayna Saari
RCT with 31 participants: Both groups of subjects had significant weight loss over the 10 wk of diet intervention and nearly identical improvements in body weight and fat mass. Only the LC group had a significant decrease in circulating insulin concentrations. Group results indicated that the diets were equally effective in reducing systolic blood pressure by about 10 mm Hg and diastolic pressure by 5 mm Hg and decreasing plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 bioactivity. These data suggest that energy restriction achieved by a very LC diet is equally effective as a LF diet strategy for weight loss and decreasing body fat in overweight and obese adults.
Mary C. Gannon; Frank Q. Nuttall
Randomized crossover with 8 participants: A LoBAG (low-biologically-available-glucose) diet ingested for 5 weeks dramatically reduced the circulating glucose concentration in people with untreated type 2 diabetes. Potentially, this could be a patient-empowering way to ameliorate hyperglycemia without pharmacological intervention.
Dietmar Gann, MD, FACC, FACP
Single arm prospective: A Low-Carbohydrate Diet in Overweight Patients Undergoing Stable Statin Therapy Raises High-Density Lipoprotein and Lowers Triglycerides Substantially
Hussein M Dashti, MD PhD FICS FACS; Thazhumpal C Mathew, MSc PhD FRCPath; Talib Hussein, MB ChB; Sami K Asfar, MB ChB MD FRCSEd FACS; Abdulla Behbahani, MB ChB FRCS FACSI PhD FICS FACS; Mousa A Khoursheed, MB ChB FRCS FICS; Hilal M Al-Sayer, MD PhD FICS FACS; Yousef Y Bo-Abbas, MD FRCPC; Naji S Al-Zaid, BSc PhD
Single arm prospective with 83 participants: The present study shows the beneficial effects of a long-term ketogenic diet. It significantly reduced the body weight and body mass index of the patients. Furthermore, it decreased the level of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, and increased the level of HDL cholesterol. Administering a ketogenic diet for a relatively longer period of time did not produce any significant side effects in the patients. Therefore, the present study confirms that it is safe to use a ketogenic diet for a longer period of time than previously demonstrated.
Y. Wady Aude, MD; Arthur S. Agatston, MD; Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, MD, MSc; Eric H. Lieberman, MD; Marie Almon, MS, RD; Melinda Hansen, ARNP; Gerardo Rojas, MD; Gervasio A. Lamas, MD; Charles H. Hennekens, MD, DrPH
RCT with 60 participants: Compared with the NCEP diet, the MLC diet, which is lower in total carbohydrates but higher in complex carbohydrates, protein, and monounsaturated fat, caused significantly greater weight loss over 12 weeks. Weight loss was significantly greater in the Modified Low Carbohydrate (13.6 lb) than in the National Cholesterol Education Program group (7.5 lb), a difference of 6.1 lb. There were significantly favorable changes in all lipid levels within the MLC but not within the NCEP group. Waist-to-hip ratio was significantly decreased within the MLC group.
William S YancyJr; Marjorie Foy; Allison M Chalecki; Mary C Vernon; Eric C Westman
Single arm with 28 participants: In a study of overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes, the LCKD (low carbohydrate ketogenic diet) improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes such that diabetes medications were discontinued or reduced in most participants. Other results include: mean body weight decreased by 6.6% and fasting serum triglyceride decreased 42%.
Kevin D. O’Brien; Bonnie J. Brehm; Randy J. Seeley; Judy Bean; Mark H. Wener; Stephen Daniels; David A. D’Alessio
RCT with 41 participants: The very low-carbohydrate dieters had a significantly greater decrease in LogSAA, but their weight loss also was significantly greater. In this study, the decreases in inflammatory markers correlated significantly with weight loss. Also, change in LogSAA correlated with change in insulin resistance. Thus, in otherwise healthy, obese women, weight loss was associated with significant decreases in both SAA and CRP. These effects were proportional to the amount of weight lost but independent of dietary macronutrient composition.
K. A. McAuley; C. M. HopkinsK; J. Smith; R. T. McLay; S. M. Williams; R. W. Taylor; J. I. Mann
RCT with 96 participants: In routine practice a reduced-carbohydrate, higher protein diet may be the most appropriate overall approach to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. To achieve similar benefits on a HC diet, it may be necessary to increase fibre-rich wholegrains, legumes, vegetables and fruits, and to reduce saturated fatty acids to a greater extent than appears to be achieved by implementing current guidelines.
John C Mavropoulos; William S Yancy; Juanita Hepburn; Eric C Westman
Single arm: In this pilot study, a LCKD led to significant improvement in weight, percent free testosterone, LH/FSH ratio, and fasting insulin in women with obesity and PCOS over a 24 week period.
Michael L. Dansinger, MD; Joi Augustin Gleason, MS, RD; John L. Griffith, PhD; Harry P. Selker, MD, MSPH; Ernst J. Schaefer, MD
RCT with 160 participants: Each popular diet modestly reduced body weight and several cardiac risk factors at 1 year. Overall dietary adherence rates were low, although increased adherence was associated with greater weight loss and cardiac risk factor reductions for each diet group.
Mary Dean Coleman, PhD, RD; Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson, PhD, RD
Singel Arm: Thirteen overweight premenopausal women aged 32 to 45 years consumed <20 g carbohydrate/day with liberal intakes of protein and fat for 2 weeks; thereafter, carbohydrate intake increased 5 g/week for 10 weeks. Serumhydroxybutyrate was correlated with presence of urinary ketones, but no relationship was found between weekly weight change and serum ketone production. Urinary ketones are detected in premenopausal women complying with a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet and are associated with serum ketone concentration.
Bonnie J. Brehm; Suzanne E. Spang; Barbara L. Lattin; Randy J. Seeley; Stephen R. Daniels; David A. D’Alessio
RCT with 50 participants: These results confirm that short-term weight loss is greater in obese women on a low-carbohydrate diet than in those on a low-fat diet even when reported food intake is similar.
Guenther Boden, MD; Karin Sargrad, MS, RD, CDE; Carol Homko, PhD, RN, CDE; Maria Mozzoli, BS; T. Peter Stein, PhD
Single arm – meabolic ward with 10 participants: In a small group of obese patients with type 2 diabetes, a low-carbohydrate diet followed for 2 weeks resulted in spontaneous reduction in energy intake to a level appropriate to their height; weight loss that was completely accounted for by reduced caloric intake; much improved 24-hour blood glucose profiles, insulin sensitivity, and hemoglobin A1c; and decreased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels.
M. E. Daly; R. Paisey; B. A. Millward; C. Eccles; K. Williams; S. Hammersley; K. M. MacLeod; T. J. Gale
RCT with 102 participants: Weight loss and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio improved was greater in the low-carbohydrate (LC) group over low fat group. Carbohydrate restriction was an effective method of achieving short-term weight loss compared with standard advice.
Christopher D. Gardner, PhD; Alexandre Kiazand, MD; Sofiya Alhassan, PhD; Soowon Kim, PhD; Randall S. Stafford, MD, PhD; Raymond R. Balise, PhD; Helena C. Kraemer, PhD; Abby C. King, PhD
RCT with 311 participants: In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone diet, and had experienced comparable or more favorable metabolic effects than those assigned to the Zone, Ornish, or LEARN diets.
Eric C Westman; William S Yancy Jr; John C Mavropoulos; Megan Marquart; Jennifer R McDuffie
RCT with 84 participants: Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.
Jeff S. Volek; Stephen D. Phinney; Cassandra E. Forsythe; Erin E. Quann; Richard J. Wood; Michael J. Puglisi; William J. Kraemer; Doug M. Bibus; Maria Luz Fernandez; Richard D. Feinman
RCT with 40 participants: Both interventions led to improvements in several metabolic markers, but subjects following the CRD had consistently reduced glucose (-12%) and insulin (-50%) concentrations, insulin sensitivity (-55%), weight loss (-10%), decreased adiposity (-14%), and more favorable triacylglycerol (TAG) (-51%), HDL-C (13%) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (-14%) responses. In addition to these markers for MetS, the CRD subjects showed more favorable responses to alternative indicators of cardiovascular risk: postprandial lipemia (-47%), the Apo B/Apo A-1 ratio (-16%), and LDL particle distribution. The results support the use of dietary carbohydrate restriction as an effective approach to improve features of MetS and cardiovascular risk.
Iris Shai, RD, PhD; Dan Schwarzfuchs, MD; Yaakov Henkin, MD; Danit R. Shahar, RD, PhD; Shula Witkow, RD, MPH; Ilana Greenberg, RD, MPH; Rachel Golan, RD, MPH; Drora Fraser, PhD; Arkady Bolotin, PhD; Hilel Vardi, MSc; Osnat Tangi-Rozental, BA; Rachel Zuk-Ramot, RN; Benjamin Sarusi, MSc; Dov Brickner, MD; Ziva Schwartz, MD; Einat Sheiner, MD; Rachel Marko, MSc; Esther Katorza, MSc; Joachim Thiery, MD; Georg Martin Fiedler, MD; Matthias Blüher, MD; Michael Stumvoll, MD; Meir J. Stampfer, MD; Dr.PH
RCT – 3 arm with 322 participants: Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives to low-fat diets. The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet) suggest that personal preferences and metabolic considerations might inform individualized tailoring of dietary interventions.
LM Morgan; BA Griffin; DJ Millward; A DeLooy; KR Fox; S Baic; MP Bonham4; JMW Wallace; I MacDonald; MA Taylor; H Truby
RCT – 4 arm: The Atkins (low-carbohydrate) diet was followed by marked reductions in plasma TAG (–38.2% 6 months). This diet was associated with an increase in LDL particle size, a change that has been linked to reduced CVD risk.
Frank M. Sacks, MD; George A. Bray, MD; Vincent J. Carey, PhD; Steven R. Smith, MD; Donna H. Ryan, MD; Stephen D. Anton, PhD; Katherine McManus, MS, RD; Catherine M. Champagne, PhD; Louise M. Bishop, MS, RD; Nancy Laranjo, BA; Meryl S. Leboff, MD; Jennifer C. Rood, PhD; Lilian de Jonge, PhD; Frank L. Greenway, MD; Catherine M. Loria, PhD; Eva Obarzanek, PhD; Donald A. Williamson, PhD
Randomozed, three arms: 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. At end of study, diets higher in protein and fat showed greater weight loss and reduced waist circumference than diet high in carbohdyrates.
Jeff S. Volek; Kevin D. Ballard; Ricardo Silvestre; Daniel A. Judelson; Erin E. Quann; Cassandra E. Forsythe; Maria Luz Fernandez; William J. Kraemer
RCT with 40 participants: These findings show that a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet improves postprandial vascular function more than a LFD in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia.