Effect of Low- Carbohydrate, Unlimited Calorie Diet on the Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Prospective Controlled Study

James R. BailesJr.; Misty T. Strow; Joseph Werthammer; Richard A. McGinnis; Yoram Elitsur

Non-ramdomized Prospective Controlled Study:  Obese children following a high protein, low CHO diet (<30g/day) lost an average of 5.21 ± 3.44 kg and decreased their BMI by 2.42 ± 1.3 points, compared to the children in the Low Cal Diet (calorie restricted) who gained an average of 2.36 ± 2.54 kg and 1.00 point on the BMI value.  A high protein, low carbohydrate, unlimited calorie diet was superior to a restricted calorie protocol for weight loss in obese school age children; moreover, compliance was better.

Read paper

A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

William S. Yancy Jr., MD, MHS; Maren K. Olsen, PhD; John R. Guyton, MD; Ronna P. Bakst, RD; Eric C. Westman, MD, MHS

RCT with 120 participants:  Compared with a low-fat diet, a low-carbohydrate diet program had better participant retention and greater weight loss. During active weight loss, serum triglyceride levels decreased more and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased more with the low-carbohydrate diet than with the low-fat diet.

Read paper

Comparison of Energyrestricted Very Lowcarbohydrate and Low-fat Diets on Weight Loss and Body Composition in Overweight Men and Women

JS Volek; MJ Sharman; AL Gómez; DA Judelson; MR Rubin; G Watson; B Sokmen; R Silvestre; DN French; WJ Kraemer

RCT with 28 particpants:  This study shows a clear benefit of a VLCK over LF diet for short-term body weight and fat loss, especially in men. A preferential loss of fat in the trunk region with a VLCK diet is novel and potentially clinically significant but requires further validation.

Read paper

Comparison of a Very Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diet on Fasting Lipids, LDL Subclasses, Insulin Resistance, and Postprandial Lipemic Responses in Overweight Women

Jeff S. Volek , PhD, RD, FACN; Matthew J. Sharman , MA; Ana L. Gómez , MS; Chris DiPasquale , MS; Melissa Roti , PhD; Amy Pumerantz , BS; William J. Kraemer , PhD

Ramdomized crossover with 13 participants:  Compared to a low-fat weight loss diet, a short-term very low-carbohydrate diet did not lower LDL-C but did prevent the decline in HDL-C and resulted in improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese, but otherwise healthy women. Small decreases in body mass improved postprandial lipemia, and therefore cardiovascular risk, independent of diet composition.

Read paper

Very Low-carbohydrate and Low-fat Diets Affect Fasting Lipids and Postprandial Lipemia Differently in Overweight Men

Matthew J. Sharman; Ana L. Gómez; William J. Kraemer; Jeff S. Volek

Ramdomized crossover:  The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a very low-carbohydrate and a low-fat diet on fasting blood lipids and postprandial lipemia in overweight men. In a balanced, randomized, crossover design, overweight men consumed 2 experimental diets for 2 consecutive 6-wk periods. One was a very low-carbohydrate (<10% energy as carbohydrate) diet and the other a low-fat (<30% energy as fat) diet. Both diets had the same effect on serum total cholesterol, serum insulin, and homeostasis model analysisinsulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Neither diet affected serum HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) or oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations. The very low-carbohydrate diet was more effective at improving characteristics of the metabolic syndrome as shown by a decrease in fasting serum TAG, the TAG/HDL-C ratio, postprandial lipemia, serum glucose, an increase in LDL particle size, and also greater weight loss.

Read paper

A randomized study comparing the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet and a conventional diet on lipoprotein subfractions and C-reactive protein levels in patients with severe obesity

Prakash Seshadri, MD; Nayyar Iqbal, MD; Linda Stern, MD; Monica Williams; Kathryn L. Chicano, CRNP; Denise A. Daily, RD; Joyce McGrory, CRNP; Edward J. Gracely, PhD; Daniel J. Rader, MD; Frederick F. Samaha, MD

RCT with 78 participants:  In this 6-month study involving severely obese subjects, we found an overall favorable effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on lipoprotein subfractions, and on inflammation in high-risk subjects. Both diets had similar effects on LDL and HDL subfractions.

Read paper

Comparison of a Low-fat Diet to a Lowcarbohydrate Diet on Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Risk Factors for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease in Free-living, Overweight Men and Women

Kelly A. Meckling; Caitriona O’Sullivan; Dayna Saari

RCT with 31 participants:  Both groups of subjects had significant weight loss over the 10 wk of diet intervention and nearly identical improvements in body weight and fat mass. Only the LC group had a significant decrease in circulating insulin concentrations.  Group results indicated that the diets were equally effective in reducing systolic blood pressure by about 10 mm Hg and diastolic pressure by 5 mm Hg and decreasing plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 bioactivity. These data suggest that energy restriction achieved by a very LC diet is equally effective as a LF diet strategy for weight loss and decreasing body fat in overweight and obese adults.

Read paper

Long Term Effects of a Ketogenic Diet in Obese Patients

Hussein M Dashti, MD PhD FICS FACS; Thazhumpal C Mathew, MSc PhD FRCPath; Talib Hussein, MB ChB; Sami K Asfar, MB ChB MD FRCSEd FACS; Abdulla Behbahani, MB ChB FRCS FACSI PhD FICS FACS; Mousa A Khoursheed, MB ChB FRCS FICS; Hilal M Al-Sayer, MD PhD FICS FACS; Yousef Y Bo-Abbas, MD FRCPC; Naji S Al-Zaid, BSc PhD

Single arm prospective with 83 participants:  The present study shows the beneficial effects of a long-term ketogenic diet. It significantly reduced the body weight and body mass index of the patients.  Furthermore, it decreased the level of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and blood glucose, and increased the level of HDL cholesterol.  Administering a ketogenic diet for a relatively longer period of time did not produce any significant side effects in the patients. Therefore, the present study confirms that it is safe to use a ketogenic diet for a longer period of time than previously demonstrated.

Read paper

The National Cholesterol Education Program Diet vs a Diet Lower in Carbohydrates and Higher in Protein and Monounsaturated Fat

Y. Wady Aude, MD; Arthur S. Agatston, MD; Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, MD, MSc; Eric H. Lieberman, MD; Marie Almon, MS, RD; Melinda Hansen, ARNP; Gerardo Rojas, MD; Gervasio A. Lamas, MD; Charles H. Hennekens, MD, DrPH

RCT with 60 participants:  Compared with the NCEP diet, the MLC diet, which is lower in total carbohydrates but higher in complex carbohydrates, protein, and monounsaturated fat, caused significantly greater weight loss over 12 weeks. Weight loss was significantly greater in the Modified Low Carbohydrate (13.6 lb) than in the National Cholesterol Education Program group (7.5 lb), a difference of 6.1 lb. There were significantly favorable changes in all lipid levels within the MLC but not within the NCEP group. Waist-to-hip ratio was significantly decreased within the MLC group.

Read paper

A Low-carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet to Treat Type 2 Diabetes

William S YancyJr; Marjorie Foy; Allison M Chalecki; Mary C Vernon; Eric C Westman

Single arm with 28 participants:  In a study of overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes, the LCKD (low carbohydrate ketogenic diet) improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes such that diabetes medications were discontinued or reduced in most participants. Other results include: mean body weight decreased by 6.6% and fasting serum triglyceride decreased 42%.

Read paper

Diet-Induced Weight Loss Is Associated with Decreases in Plasma Serum Amyloid A and CReactive Protein Independent of Dietary Macronutrient Composition in Obese Subjects

Kevin D. O’Brien; Bonnie J. Brehm; Randy J. Seeley; Judy Bean; Mark H. Wener; Stephen Daniels; David A. D’Alessio

RCT with 41 participants:  The very low-carbohydrate dieters had a significantly greater decrease in LogSAA, but their weight loss also was significantly greater. In this study, the decreases in inflammatory markers correlated significantly with weight loss. Also, change in LogSAA correlated with change in insulin resistance. Thus, in otherwise healthy, obese women, weight loss was associated with significant decreases in both SAA and CRP. These effects were proportional to the amount of weight lost but independent of dietary macronutrient composition.

Read paper

Comparison of High-Fat and High-Protein Diets With a High- Carbohydrate Diet in Insulin-Resistant Obese Women

K. A. McAuley; C. M. HopkinsK; J. Smith; R. T. McLay; S. M. Williams; R. W. Taylor; J. I. Mann

RCT with 96 participants:  In routine practice a reduced-carbohydrate, higher protein diet may be the most appropriate overall approach to reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. To achieve similar benefits on a HC diet, it may be necessary to increase fibre-rich wholegrains, legumes, vegetables and fruits, and to reduce saturated fatty acids to a greater extent than appears to be achieved by implementing current guidelines.

Read paper

Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets for Weight Loss and Heart Disease Risk Reduction

Michael L. Dansinger, MD; Joi Augustin Gleason, MS, RD; John L. Griffith, PhD; Harry P. Selker, MD, MSPH; Ernst J. Schaefer, MD

RCT with 160 participants:  Each popular diet modestly reduced body weight and several cardiac risk factors at 1 year. Overall dietary adherence rates were low, although increased adherence was associated with greater weight loss and cardiac risk factor reductions for each diet group.

Read paper

Urinary Ketones Reflect Serum Ketone Concentration But Do Not Relate to Weight Loss in Overweight Premenopausal Women Following a Lowcarbohydrate/ Highprotein Diet

Mary Dean Coleman, PhD, RD; Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson, PhD, RD

Singel Arm:  Thirteen overweight premenopausal women aged 32 to 45 years consumed <20 g carbohydrate/day with liberal intakes of protein and fat for 2 weeks; thereafter, carbohydrate intake increased 5 g/week for 10 weeks. Serumhydroxybutyrate was correlated with presence of urinary ketones, but no relationship was found between weekly weight change and serum ketone production. Urinary ketones are detected in premenopausal women complying with a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet and are associated with serum ketone concentration.

Read paper

Effect of a Low- Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Guenther Boden, MD; Karin Sargrad, MS, RD, CDE; Carol Homko, PhD, RN, CDE; Maria Mozzoli, BS; T. Peter Stein, PhD

Single arm – meabolic ward with 10 participants:  In a small group of obese patients with type 2 diabetes, a low-carbohydrate diet followed for 2 weeks resulted in spontaneous reduction in energy intake to a level appropriate to their height; weight loss that was completely accounted for by reduced caloric intake; much improved 24-hour blood glucose profiles, insulin sensitivity, and hemoglobin A1c; and decreased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

Read paper

Short-Term Effects of Severe Dietary Carbohydrate-Restriction Advice in Type 2 Diabetes – a Randomized Controlled Trial

M. E. Daly; R. Paisey; B. A. Millward; C. Eccles; K. Williams; S. Hammersley; K. M. MacLeod; T. J. Gale

RCT with 102 participants:  Weight loss and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio improved was greater in the low-carbohydrate (LC) group over low fat group. Carbohydrate restriction was an effective method of achieving short-term weight loss compared with standard advice.

Read paper

Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women – The A TO Z Weight Loss Study: A Randomized Trial

Christopher D. Gardner, PhD; Alexandre Kiazand, MD; Sofiya Alhassan, PhD; Soowon Kim, PhD; Randall S. Stafford, MD, PhD; Raymond R. Balise, PhD; Helena C. Kraemer, PhD; Abby C. King, PhD

RCT with 311 participants:  In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone diet, and had experienced comparable or more favorable metabolic effects than those assigned to the Zone, Ornish, or LEARN diets.

Read paper

The Effect of a Lowcarbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus a Lowglycemic Index Diet on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Eric C Westman; William S Yancy Jr; John C Mavropoulos; Megan Marquart; Jennifer R McDuffie

RCT with 84 participants:  Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes.

Read paper

Carbohydrate Restriction has a More Favorable Impact on the Metabolic Syndrome than a Low Fat Diet

Jeff S. Volek; Stephen D. Phinney; Cassandra E. Forsythe; Erin E. Quann; Richard J. Wood; Michael J. Puglisi; William J. Kraemer; Doug M. Bibus; Maria Luz Fernandez; Richard D. Feinman

RCT with 40 participants:  Both interventions led to improvements in several metabolic markers, but subjects following the CRD had consistently reduced glucose (-12%) and insulin (-50%) concentrations, insulin sensitivity (-55%), weight loss (-10%), decreased adiposity (-14%), and more favorable triacylglycerol (TAG) (-51%), HDL-C (13%) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (-14%) responses. In addition to these markers for MetS, the CRD subjects showed more favorable responses to alternative indicators of cardiovascular risk: postprandial lipemia (-47%), the Apo B/Apo A-1 ratio (-16%), and LDL particle distribution. The results support the use of dietary carbohydrate restriction as an effective approach to improve features of MetS and cardiovascular risk.

Read paper

Weight Loss with a Low- Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low- Fat Diet

Iris Shai, RD, PhD; Dan Schwarzfuchs, MD; Yaakov Henkin, MD; Danit R. Shahar, RD, PhD; Shula Witkow, RD, MPH; Ilana Greenberg, RD, MPH; Rachel Golan, RD, MPH; Drora Fraser, PhD; Arkady Bolotin, PhD; Hilel Vardi, MSc; Osnat Tangi-Rozental, BA; Rachel Zuk-Ramot, RN; Benjamin Sarusi, MSc; Dov Brickner, MD; Ziva Schwartz, MD; Einat Sheiner, MD; Rachel Marko, MSc; Esther Katorza, MSc; Joachim Thiery, MD; Georg Martin Fiedler, MD; Matthias Blüher, MD; Michael Stumvoll, MD; Meir J. Stampfer, MD; Dr.PH

RCT – 3 arm with 322 participants:  Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives to low-fat diets. The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet) suggest that personal preferences and metabolic considerations might inform individualized tailoring of dietary interventions.

Read paper

1 2 3 4 5

Sponsors & Supporters

×