Effects of exogenous ketone supplementation on blood ketone, glucose, triglyceride, and lipoprotein levels in Sprague–Dawley rats

Shannon L. Kesl*, Angela M. Poff, Nathan P. Ward1, Tina N. Fiorelli1, Csilla Ari, Ashley J. Van Putten, Jacob W. Sherwood, Patrick Arnold and Dominic P. D’Agostino

Nutritional ketosis induced by the ketogenic diet (KD) has therapeutic applications for many disease states.  We hypothesized that oral administration of exogenous ketone supplements could produce sustained nutritional ketosis (>0.5 mM) without carbohydrate restriction.

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Statin wars: have we been misled about the evidence? A narrative review

Dr Maryanne Demasi PhD

Statins are the most widely prescribed, cholesterol lowering drugs in the world.  Despite the expiration of their patents, revenue for statins is expected to rise, with total sales on track to reach an estimated US$1 trillion by 2020.  A bitter dispute has erupted among doctors over suggestions that statins should be prescribed to millions of healthy people at low risk of heart disease.  There are concerns that the benefits have been exaggerated and the risks have been underplayed.  Also, the raw data on the efficacy and safety of statins are being kept secret and have not been subjected to scrutiny by other scientists. This lack of transparency has led to an erosion of public confidence. Doctors and patients are being misled about the true benefits and harms of statins, and it is now a matter of urgency that the raw data from the clinical trials are released.

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Acute D-psicose administration decreases the glycemic responses to an oral maltodextrin tolerance test in normal adults

Iida T, Kishimoto Y, Yoshikawa Y, Hayashi N, Okuma K, Tohi M, Yagi K, Matsuo T, Izumori K

Human study where allulose reduced glycemic response…D-psicose is allullose. “The load test with 75 g maltodextrin showed significant suppressions of the elevation of blood glucose and insulin concentration under the doses of 5 g or more D-psicose with dose dependency.

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Rare sugar d-allulose: Potential role and therapeutic monitoring in maintaining obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Akram Hossaina, Fuminori Yamaguchia, Tatsuhiro Matsuob, Ikuko Tsukamotoc, Yukiyasu Toyodad, Masahiro Ogawae, Yasuo Nagataf, Masaaki Tokuda

Cell culture study showed that d-allulose enters into and leaves the intestinal enterocytes via glucose transporters GLUT5 and GLUT2, respectively. In addition to d-allulose’s short-term effects, the characterization of long-term effects has been focused on preventing commencement and progression of T2DM in diabetic rats. Human trials showed that d-allulose attenuates postprandial glucose levels in healthy subjects and in borderline diabetic subjects

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A Preliminary Study for Evaluating the Dose-Dependent Effect of d-Allulose for Fat Mass Reduction in Adult Humans: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

Youngji Han, Eun-Young Kwon, Mi Kyeong Yu, Seon Jeong Lee, Hye-Jin Kim, Seong-Bo Kim, Yang Hee Kim, Myung-Sook Choi

Multiple comparison analysis showed that d-allulose supplementation in overweight or obese subjects led to a significant decrease in body fat mass, BMI, and body fat percentage. In comparing results before the study and during the follow up to the study, d-allulose supplementation was observed to reduce body weight, body fat mass, BMI, and body fat percentage. In addition, multiple comparison analysis of CT scan results indicated that the total abdominal fat area and subcutaneous fat area were significantly decreased following high allulose supplementation.

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d-Allulose enhances postprandial fat oxidation in healthy humans

Tomonori Kimura, M.S, Akane Kanasaki, M.S, Noriko Hayashi, M.S, Takako Yamada, M.S, Tetsuo Iida, Ph.D, Yasuo Nagata, Ph.D, Kazuhiro Okuma, Ph.D.

In the d-allulose-treated group, the area under the curve of fat oxidation was significantly higher than in the control group (10.5 ± 0.4 versus 9.6 ± 0.3 kJ·4 h·kg-1 body weight [BW]; P < 0.05), whereas that of carbohydrate oxidation was significantly lower (8.1 ± 0.5 versus 9.2 ± 0.5 kJ·4 h·kg-1 BW; P < 0.05). Furthermore, plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, and free fatty acid levels were significantly higher in the d-allulose group than in the control group. No other parameters such as insulin, total cholesterol, or triacylglycerol were modified. d-Allulose enhances postprandial fat oxidation in healthy humans, indicating that it could be a novel sweetener to control and maintain healthy body weight, probably through enhanced energy metabolism

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