Hussein M Dashti, MD PhD FICS FACS, Thazhumpal C Mathew, MSc PhD FRCPath, Talib Hussein, MB ChB, Sami K Asfar, MB ChB MD FRCSEd FACS, Abdulla Behbahani, MB ChB FRCS FACSI PhD FICS FACS, Mousa A Khoursheed, MB ChB FRCS FICS, Hilal M Al-Sayer, MD PhD FICS FACS, Yousef Y Bo-Abbas, MD FRCPC, and Naji S Al-Zaid, BSc PhD
To determine the effects of a 24-week ketogenic diet (consisting of 30 g carbohydrate, 1 g/kg body weight protein, 20% saturated fat, and 80% polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat) in obese patients.
Kimberly P. Kinzig, Mary Ann Honors, and Sara L. Hargrave
Low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets (KD) are frequently implemented in efforts to reduce or maintain body weight, although the metabolic effects of long-term exposure to this type of diet remain controversial. This study assessed the responsiveness to peripheral and central insulin, glucose tolerance, and meal-induced effects of consuming a KD in the rat.
Mobbs CV, Mastaitis J, Isoda F, Poplawski M
Accumulating evidence suggests that low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are safe and effective to reduce glycemia in diabetic patients without producing significant cardiovascular risks. Most of these studies have been carried out specifically restricting carbohydrates, which tends to lead to increased protein intake, thus reducing the ketosis. However, diets that limit protein as well as carbohydrates, entailing a composition very high in fat, appear even more effective to reduce glucose and whole-body glucose metabolism in humans.
Hayden White and Balasubramanian Venkatesh
Although much feared by clinicians, the ability to produce ketones has allowed humans to withstand prolonged periods of starvation. At such times, ketones can supply up to 50% of basal energy requirements. More interesting, however, is the fact that ketones can provide as much as 70% of the brain’s energy needs, more efficiently than glucose.
LaManna JC, Salem N, Puchowicz M, Erokwu B, Koppaka S, Flask C, Lee Z.
The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta HB) and acetoacetate (AcAc), as occurs with fasting, prolonged starvation or chronic feeding of a high fat/low carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet). In this study, the local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose consumption (CMRglu; microM/min/100g) was calculated in the cortex and cerebellum of control and ketotic rats using Patlak analysis.
Zhang Y, Kuang Y, Xu K, Harris D, Lee Z, LaManna J, Puchowicz MA.
The brain is dependent on glucose as a primary energy substrate, but is capable of utilizing ketones such as β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, as occurs with fasting, starvation, or chronic feeding of a ketogenic diet. The relationship between changes in cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (CMRglc) and degree or duration of ketosis remains uncertain. To investigate if CMRglc decreases with chronic ketosis, 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in combination with positron emission tomography, was applied in anesthetized young adult rats fed 3 weeks of either standard or ketogenic diets.
Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Dangelo K, Couch SC, Benoit SC, Clegg DJ.
We randomly assigned 23 older adults with mild cognitive impairment to either a high carbohydrate or very low carbohydrate diet. Following the 6-week intervention period, we observed improved verbal memory performance for the low carbohydrate subjects (p = 0.01) as well as reductions in weight (p < 0.0001), waist circumference (p < 0.0001), fasting glucose (p = 0.009), and fasting insulin (p = 0.005).
Reger MA, Henderson ST, Hale C, Cholerton B, Baker LD, Watson GS, Hyde K, Chapman D, Craft S.
Glucose is the brain’s principal energy substrate. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), there appears to be a pathological decrease in the brain’s ability to use glucose. Neurobiological evidence suggests that ketone bodies are an effective alternative energy substrate for the brain. Elevation of plasma ketone body levels through an oral dose of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) may improve cognitive functioning in older adults with memory disorders.
Shannon L. Kesl*, Angela M. Poff, Nathan P. Ward1, Tina N. Fiorelli1, Csilla Ari, Ashley J. Van Putten, Jacob W. Sherwood, Patrick Arnold and Dominic P. D’Agostino
Nutritional ketosis induced by the ketogenic diet (KD) has therapeutic applications for many disease states. We hypothesized that oral administration of exogenous ketone supplements could produce sustained nutritional ketosis (>0.5 mM) without carbohydrate restriction.
Dr Maryanne Demasi PhD
Statins are the most widely prescribed, cholesterol lowering drugs in the world. Despite the expiration of their patents, revenue for statins is expected to rise, with total sales on track to reach an estimated US$1 trillion by 2020. A bitter dispute has erupted among doctors over suggestions that statins should be prescribed to millions of healthy people at low risk of heart disease. There are concerns that the benefits have been exaggerated and the risks have been underplayed. Also, the raw data on the efficacy and safety of statins are being kept secret and have not been subjected to scrutiny by other scientists. This lack of transparency has led to an erosion of public confidence. Doctors and patients are being misled about the true benefits and harms of statins, and it is now a matter of urgency that the raw data from the clinical trials are released.
Iida T, Kishimoto Y, Yoshikawa Y, Hayashi N, Okuma K, Tohi M, Yagi K, Matsuo T, Izumori K
Human study where allulose reduced glycemic response…D-psicose is allullose. “The load test with 75 g maltodextrin showed significant suppressions of the elevation of blood glucose and insulin concentration under the doses of 5 g or more D-psicose with dose dependency.
Akram Hossaina, Fuminori Yamaguchia, Tatsuhiro Matsuob, Ikuko Tsukamotoc, Yukiyasu Toyodad, Masahiro Ogawae, Yasuo Nagataf, Masaaki Tokuda
Cell culture study showed that d-allulose enters into and leaves the intestinal enterocytes via glucose transporters GLUT5 and GLUT2, respectively. In addition to d-allulose’s short-term effects, the characterization of long-term effects has been focused on preventing commencement and progression of T2DM in diabetic rats. Human trials showed that d-allulose attenuates postprandial glucose levels in healthy subjects and in borderline diabetic subjects
Youngji Han, Eun-Young Kwon, Mi Kyeong Yu, Seon Jeong Lee, Hye-Jin Kim, Seong-Bo Kim, Yang Hee Kim, Myung-Sook Choi
Multiple comparison analysis showed that d-allulose supplementation in overweight or obese subjects led to a significant decrease in body fat mass, BMI, and body fat percentage. In comparing results before the study and during the follow up to the study, d-allulose supplementation was observed to reduce body weight, body fat mass, BMI, and body fat percentage. In addition, multiple comparison analysis of CT scan results indicated that the total abdominal fat area and subcutaneous fat area were significantly decreased following high allulose supplementation.
Tomonori Kimura, M.S, Akane Kanasaki, M.S, Noriko Hayashi, M.S, Takako Yamada, M.S, Tetsuo Iida, Ph.D, Yasuo Nagata, Ph.D, Kazuhiro Okuma, Ph.D.
In the d-allulose-treated group, the area under the curve of fat oxidation was significantly higher than in the control group (10.5 ± 0.4 versus 9.6 ± 0.3 kJ·4 h·kg-1 body weight [BW]; P < 0.05), whereas that of carbohydrate oxidation was significantly lower (8.1 ± 0.5 versus 9.2 ± 0.5 kJ·4 h·kg-1 BW; P < 0.05). Furthermore, plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, and free fatty acid levels were significantly higher in the d-allulose group than in the control group. No other parameters such as insulin, total cholesterol, or triacylglycerol were modified. d-Allulose enhances postprandial fat oxidation in healthy humans, indicating that it could be a novel sweetener to control and maintain healthy body weight, probably through enhanced energy metabolism